The microbiome of the human skin and its variability in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis
Malgorzata Mazura, Hanna Tomczakc, Martha Lodygaa, Zygmunt Adamski, Medical Dermatology Clinic, Poznan, Poland Department of Medical Mycology and Dermatology, Poznan Universityof Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland Department of Genetics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland Central Microbiological Laboratory, S´wie˛cicki University Hospital, Poznan, PolandeDepartment and Clinics of Dermatology, Poznan University of MedicalSciences, Poznan, Poland Background: The human organism is inhabited by very diversemicroorganisms that constitute the so-called human microbiomeand are necessary for the proper functioning of the macroorganism.The correct microbiome ensures homeostasis of the body. A distur-bance in its homeostasis leads to dysbiosis. Such deviations may alsobe related to the development of inﬂammatory skin diseases, includ-ing atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.Objective: This review aims to analyze the most current publisheddata on the microbiome of the human skin and examine its role incutaneous skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.Methods: This review was compiled by collaborating dermatolo-gists who specialize in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. A comprehen-sive review of the current literature was examined using PubMedand limited to relevant case reports and original papers on the skinmicrobiome in atopic dermatitis and/or psoriasis.Results: Whether changes in the microbiome are the cause or con-sequence of disease (atopic dermatitis/psoriasis) have not yet beenestablished. However, in the cases where pathological microﬂorapredominated, an intensiﬁcation of lesion severity was observed,but with clinical improvement, commensal microﬂora was restored.Conclusion: Modiﬁcation of the composition of the microﬂora maylead to changes in the activation of the immune system and eventu-ally to the development of inﬂammatory diseases. Adverse effects onthe microbiome may include antibiotics, poor diet, stress, andadverse environmental conditions. However, more research isneeded to identify exact details and mechanisms.
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