Inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE 4): A new therapeutic option in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris and psoriatic arthritis

Abstract Psoriasis vulgaris (PV) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are inflammatory diseases in which inflammation and sustained inducing lesions result from immune disorders associated with overactivity of T cells that produce multiple proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin: IL-2, IL-12, IL-17, IL-22 or IL-23. Modern treatment of these diseases is focused on reducing the inflammatory process responsible for the development of the disease. In recent years, the treatment of psoriasis is developing at a dynamic rate. Such therapeutic advances are contributed to the possibility of patient therapy through the use of some registered biologic agents, such as TNF-α inhibitors (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab), and an inhibitor of the p40 subunit common to IL-12 and IL-23 (ustekinumab). In addition to the already registered medications for the indications mentioned above, there is a large group of preparations that are currently undergoing clinical trials in Europe, Canada and the U.S., which provides hopes of therapy efficacy and safety. The study aims to provide updated information on the subject of apremilast- a new therapeutic agent, which is currently in the late stage of clinical trials in the indication of psoriasis vulgaris (PV) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA).